Energy of the region.
Electric energy is generated in Kazakhstan mainly in thermal power plants. In connection with the annual increase in energy prices and the growing demand for electricity, the question arises of using the energy of water, sun and wind. Zhambyl oblast produces less electricity compared to electricity: 40% of annual consumption is covered by its own sources, and the remaining 60% is covered by distant external sources.
Given the role of hydropower plants in ensuring the sustainable operation of the country’s energy system, the commissioning of new hydropower facilities will allow:
- increase the capacity of the energy system of Kazakhstan in covering peak loads from its own sources,
- facilitate the solution to the issue of the balance of power plants,
- improve power plant capacity structure,
- improve the quality of power supply and increase the efficiency of the power industry,
- prevent greenhouse gas emissions (Kyoto agreement).
Thus, with the growth of electricity consumption in the economy, it is necessary to increase its own sources of electricity.
One of the most attractive areas in terms of using the potential of rivers as sources of electricity is the potential of the Shu River..
The construction site of the hydropower station is located on the Shu River, in the Shu District of the Zhambyl Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
About the river.
Shu flows through the territories of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. The length of the river is 1,186 km, of which within Kazakhstan is 800 km. The catchment area is 67,500 km². The main tributaries are: on the right – Chong-Kemin, Yrgayty, Kakpatas; on the left – Alamedin, Aksu, Kuragaty.
In the gorges of the Upper and Lower Ortotokoiskoye Shu falls into the Issyk-Kul basin. Until the beginning of the 1950s, at the high water, part of the Shu flow ran along the Kutemalda branch into Issyk-Kul Lake. At present, not reaching the Lake of Issyk-Kul 5-6 km, the river near the town of Balykchy turns to the north-west, passing the Kapchigai tract, and through the Boom gorge enters the Chui valley. On average, the river serves the Kyrgyz-Kazakh border. In the lower reaches, the river flows through Kazakhstan’s territory, where the river valley expands to 3-5 km, swamps and, forming the northern border of the Moyunkum desert, dries out in the sands, only during the flood falling into the drainless Akzhaykyn lake among extensive salt marshes of the Achychik depression.
The Shu River originates in the glaciers of the mountains and the eternal snow of the Dzungarian Alatau. The Shu River’s supply is mixed: melting glaciers, snow, runoff from precipitation, and also feeding with groundwater. According to the statistical data of the Shu gauging station: the average-long-term consumption is 38.48 m3/s, the average discharge volume is 12.14 × 108 m3. (1.214 billion m3/year).
The uniqueness of the Shu River is that it has maximum water discharges during the winter period, which favorably affects the energy balance of the Zhambyl region, because other diversion-type hydroelectric power stations are deficient in water volumes.
The project provides for measures to ensure the reduction of emissions into the atmosphere and the impact on it during the construction period.
Local building materials (sand, gravel) are located within 3 km. from construction sites. It is planned to use 4 quarries and 1 quarry of soil for the production of aggregates for concrete (quarry inert materials). An asphalt road approaches the construction site.
Selection of power equipment.
The right choice of power equipment has a very important role in the construction of hydroelectric power plants. The efficiency of using the kinetic energy of water to generate electricity depends on the right choice.
For equipment selection, we refer to classic materials that will give an approximate idea of hydro turbines. As shown in Figure 1 the graph of the selection and calculation of the power station, we focus on pressure and water flow.
Our hydrological data falls under the parameters with a head of 10 m and a water flow of 30 m3 / s. After preliminary calculations, we get more than 5 MW / hour of power capacity. According to the graph in Figure 1, we select a CAPLAN type turbine.Return